Saturday, March 21, 2020
Where to Find IB Chemistry Past Papers - Free and Official SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Taking the IB Chemistry exam will be a nerve-wracking experience, but having seen a real IB past paper before taking the actual test will be a huge advantage since you'll have experience with the test format, the length, and style of the test. In this article, I will show you where to find IB Chemistry past papers, both free and paid. I'll also share tips on how to study most effectively using these IB Chemistry past papers. Where to Find Free Tests The IB has been diligent about seeking out and destroying illegally uploaded official papers for the past few years, so a lot of sources that used to be out there are no longer readily available. Currently, the only free official IB Chemistry test legally available is this Chemistry HL paper 3. I have not been able to find any unofficial IB Chemistry past papers (ones created from scratch). If you find any, I strongly advise AGAINST using them, as they may be nothing like the actual IB Chemistry papers. Where to Find Paid Tests The IBO store sells IB Chemistry SL and HL past papers from May 2015 to November 2018. Navigate to the Diploma Program page, then click "Shop Exam Papers" to see all available papers, which can be narrowed by category and time frame. This is the only safe place to get IB Chemistry past papers to download. Each paper and each mark scheme costs $3.00. Buying all of the past papers and mark schemes can be costly, so if you are looking to spend as little as possible, I recommend just purchasing the most recent (November and May 2018) past papers as they will be closest to what you learned. 3 Tips for Using IB Chemistry Past Papers Productively Since each practice IB Chemistry exam will take you 3 hours for SL or 4.5 hours for HL, it's imperative that you get the most out of each test. Here are a few helpful practices to keep in mind when you're taking these papers: #1: Complete papers 1 and 2 in one sitting. The IB Chemistry SL and IB Chemistry HL papers are intense, forcing you to sit and concentrate for two hours for SL and 3 hours and 15 minutes for HL. You need to build up your mental strength so you don't make careless errors by the end of paper 2. By taking the practice tests in one session, you build up your mental strength in preparation for the real test. If you don't have time for a 2 hour or 3 hour 15 minute session, then you can take each paper on separate days. However, you need to obey the next rule: #2: Stick to the exact timing on each part of the exam. It is VERY IMPORTANT that you get used to the stressful timing of this test: IB Chemistry SL: IB Chemistry SL Paper 1- 45 minutes IB Chemistry SL Paper 2- 1 hour 15 minutes IB Chemistry SL Paper 3- 1 hour IB Chemistry HL: IB Chemistry HL Paper 1- 1 hour IB Chemistry HL Paper 2- 2 hours 15 minutes IB Chemistry HL Paper 3- 1 hour 15 minutes In this allotted time, you need to finish: IB Chemistry SL: Paper 1: 30 multiple-choice questions Paper 2: two parts, Section A: answer all of four short responses and Section B: pick one essay question (you choose between three options) Paper 3: Answer all of the questions for your two options: six short response questions that each can have between 2-5 parts IB Chemistry HL: Paper 1: 40 multiple-choice questions Paper 2: two parts, Section A: answer all of four short response questions that each can have between 3-10 parts and Section B: pick two essay questions (you choose between four options) Paper 3: Answer all of the questions for your two options: seven or more short response and essay questions (varies based on the options that you covered in your class) Do not practice with extra time- if you give yourself extra time, you can complete more questions and increase your score. We want to use these practice tests as realistic predictors of your exam score. #3: Check your answers. After you complete a practice exam, you need to review every error you made. Do not skip this step. If you do, you will not learn from your errors, and you will make the same ones on the IB Chemistry test. So make sure to spend at least 1.5 hours reviewing every full practice tests. This may seem like a lot of time, but emphasize quality of learning over quantity of learning. I'd rather see you take two tests with meticulous review than five tests with no review. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Need help reviewing some chemistry concepts? Read up on how to balance chemical equations here. Learn more about IB Chemistry: The Complete IB Chemistry Syllabus: SL and HL The Best IB Chemistry Study Guide and Notes for SL/HL The Best IB Chemistry Books, Reviewed Looking for ways to apply your chemistry knowledge to your everyday life? Get three different recipes for making your own slime and learn how to (safely) use muriatic acid to clean household items. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Pronouncing Words That End in -lm Pronouncing Words That End in -lm Pronouncing Words That End in -lm By Maeve Maddox Not many one-syllable English words end in the letters -lm. Sometimes the l in them is pronounced; sometimes it isnt. Heres a list of the most common -lm words, together with the pronunciation in the phonetic notation given at Answers.com. Many Americans pronounce all of these words with an l. alms [mz] balm [bm] calm [km] elm [Ãâ¢lm] embalm[Ãâ¢m-bm] film [fÃ lm] helm [hÃâ¢lm] palm [pm] psalm [sm] qualm [kwm] realm [rÃâ¢lm] whelm [hwÃâ¢lm] These pronunciations all agree with those given in the OED. Additionally, the OED acknowledges U.S. pronunciations with the sound of l for palm, psalm, and qualm. Merriam-Webster uses the symbol ] to indicate a sound that facilitates the placement of variant pronunciation. For example, Ã¯ ¿ ¼]mz. This symbol, which seems to indicate an almost l, is used for the first pronunciation given for alms, balm, calm, embalm, palm, psalm, and qualm. The pronunciation with a full l sound is given as an alternate: also ]lm. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Bare or Bear With Me?How Long Should a Paragraph Be?When to use "an"
Monday, February 17, 2020
Emergency Management 670 week 7 Conference - Essay Example In the future, emergency managers will need to develop a region wide approach to emergency management, implement interoperable GIS technologies and protect key infrastructure in the communities. Effective emergency managers need some skills and traits in order to effectively manage the unforeseen disaster. Some of the skills include risk assessment skills, mitigation planning, and ability to work with the communities in preparedness through periodic drills. According to DrabekÃ¢â¬â¢s study of 1987, effective emergency managers should have salient traits such as anticipating disasters, exhibition of professionalism, being community mentors, reconciliatory traits, the knowledge of extend of authority and ordinance based powers and doing anything possible to protect and preserve the safety of the community. The National Academy of Sciences study of emergency management concluded that efficient emergency managers need critical future skills such as grasp of the public administration and budgeting skills. It also made it clear that understanding of HAZUS software and improvement warnings and communications was essential for emergency managers. The study concluded that emergency managers should improve the use of social media and acquire higher education on risk assessment and preparedness skills (Langberg, 2010). The study also suggested that emergency managers should be more regionally focused and share best practices in emergency management in order to enhance the response capabilities of the first responders. The National Academy of Sciences study also proposed the better use of GIS and other software technologies in identifying and responding to emergencies. On the other hand, International Association of Emergency managers (IAEM) recently announced that the emergency managers should be compressive, risk-driven, progressive, inclusive, collaborative, professional, coordinated and flexible in response to
Monday, February 3, 2020
Macro8C - Essay Example In order to close this gap, the governments needs to take some expansionary fiscal policy i.e. increase government spending and/or reduce taxes. If only government spending is to be considered, At the end of your presentation, the president decides that any change in government expenditures would be politically unpopular at the moment, so she asks you how she might solve the same problem with a tax change instead. What change in taxation will you recommend? Be specific and show all of your work. Since there is a recessionary gap, the government would need to reduce the taxes. An increase in tax would mean lesser income available to spend. As the goal is to increase aggregate demand, taxes would need to be reduced. Cutting taxes will increase disposable income, which will stimulate consumption with multiplier effects & expanding output and employment. This implies that taxes need to be reduced by an amount of $ 500 in order to close the recessionary gap. So, it takes a larger deficit to get the same stimulus with a tax cut than it would with increased government spending. Suppose that a balanced budget amendment forces the president to match each dollar increase in government spending with an equal offsetting dollar increase in taxation, and each dollar decrease in federal spending with an equal decrease in taxes. Would fiscal policy be weakened, or even rendered useless, by such a law? Why or why not? The fiscal policy is not rendered useless as there is still change in GDP. If we look at the overall effect, the balanced budget multiplier allows us to close the gap without an increased deficit or decreased surplus. If, however, the recessionary gap to be closed is large, it would imply that the government needs to increase spending by a large amount, and also increase taxes by an equally large amount. This may not be very popular with the people and the government may be reluctant to enforce such a measure due to political
Sunday, January 26, 2020
A Study On Change Management Commerce Essay Accepting change is considered the biggest paranoia in todays world. Organizations both business and non-business confront a challenging world. Some of the challenges that are faced by managers today include competition from other firms, globalization, and technological changes besides others. Let us consider a small example that can set the stage for discussing the effects of change. Daily life in a modern society is like a routine, where we wake up in the mornings, have breakfast, go for work, have lunch, come back from work, eat dinner and then sleep again. It has become a scheduled life, or so to say, we conform to structure in our lives. This structure provides us the necessary security. But, if we were to live in a world full of anxiety and unexpected mechanisms, it may leave us feeling uneasy and apprehensive. If this is the condition of individuals, a large-scale change in an organization can surely transform its people into anxiety, exasperation, frustration, depression or even fatal incidents. To curb this, organizations practice what is to be referred to as Change Management. Change Management is a process whereby, the individual, team or the organization develops a planned approach towards any sort of an alteration. The objective is to capitalize the benefits for the people and lessen the risk of failure of implementation. Change management entails thoughtful planning and sensitive implementation, and most importantly, consultation with the people who are going to be involved in the process. This task studies how organizations have evolved to accept change. But let us first look at the drivers that affect organizational change: ÃË Inadequate Financial Performance the 2008 economic slowdown can be well quoted as an example for this. Companies failing to reach their financial benchmarks, have to undergo change. Competitive organizations can cannibalize their market share, provided they enter with cheaper labor or superior technology. Failure to maintain the market share can force companies to rethink their opportunity cost and also the deployment of resources. ÃË Changes in Strategic objectives many companies shift their focus from being product-driven to being customer-driven or even process-driven. To enable this, restructuring and re-orientation of processes, people are required of in the organization. ÃË New Technology companies that neglect the new trends in the market are set to suffer a setback, and, therefore, should adapt to the changes in technology. ÃË Mergers and Acquisitions when companies merge and consolidate their operations, people and the culture, re-engineering takes place. The streamlining of the operations, infrastructure and the structure of the two organizations into one centralized theme is a huge part of the change management process. These, could be defined as the drivers of change that evolve businesses and markets. Organizations, today, have learnt to adapt to change. In this era of globalization, fast-moving lives and business-centered organizations, people and the processes have accepted the transformation. For instance, a lot of investment banks had to undergo transformation during the economic slowdown. Citigroup Inc. restructured its banks and other affiliates during the recessionary period, to acclimatize with the new environment. And it did happen. The management has to ensure that a smooth shift occurs, and for this it adopts a number of organizational theories as a basis for effective change management. Some of them are listed in the next few paragraphs. The central challenge of changing peoples behavior and making them susceptible to change remains to be a huge challenge. John Kotter and Dan Cohen, discuss in their book The Heart of Change: real life stories of how people change their organizations discuss highly-successful organizations embark large-scale change. They say it moves through eight stages: What people do and what is to be done for them, requires systematic thinking and planning on the part of the management. It is necessary to build upon a sense of urgency in the people by inspiring them with the need that has arisen to undergo change. This could be done with relevant people in the organization first and then go onto include others. These could be referred to as the Change Agents. These agents can then create a team with the credibility, reputation and formal authority that can inspire change leadership. The visions, strategies and goals of the employees and the organization could be uplifted in this process but communication of these is of utmost important. The right communication can get the change process on an easy path. Every path has some definite barriers to action, and it is imperative to remove these as they would prove harmful. Empowering the people to act on their vision could lead to easy transition. Change cannot be brought about in a jiffy. It requires a lot of patience and observation on part of the organization, and therefore, small waves of change can lead to a bigger, better ocean of possibilities. When the change management process is nearly done, the new culture should remain stagnant until, the next change process comes around. This eight-step process of change would help to slide organizational change smoothly into organizational processes and functions and would bring about a new culture. The next theory of change is Kurt Lewins Three-Step Change theory. This theory is considered to be systematic and planned in its approach. It talks about three steps namely: The first step says to unfreeze or to change the existing behavior. This is necessary to overcome the strains of individual resistance. Some activities that can assist in this step are motivating the employees, building trust and recognition and letting the employees participate in brainstorming sessions and other group activities. The second step talks about taking the level of the employees to a new target level. In this stage, the employees are encouraged to work together, look at the changes from a new perspective, and support the change agents and the leaders in the process of change. The purpose of refreezing is to stabilize the new equilibrium and ensuring that the changes implemented are followed by the employees. There are many other theories that can catapult an organization into accepting change, namely, 7-S Framework by Mckinsey, Cultural Dimensions by Hofstede, Managerial Grid by Blake-Mouton, Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change by Burke-Litwin, besides others. Organizations, today, understand the relevance of inclusion of its employees in the process of change management, and, therefore by implication of various models and theories, involve their people with full intention of their benefit. The Cognitive theory states the importance of understanding the thought processes of human beings, and this theory aids in the development of the theories and the models used by organizations for engaging their employees in the change management process. The next task studies the strengths and weaknesses of a Bureaucratic Organization. Task (b) Max Weber gave the concept of bureaucracy at the turn of the 20th century. For him, the ideal bureaucracy was defined by the terms efficiency, impersonality and rationality. The employees are subject to published codes of rules i.e. the ones that are available in writing. The structure of the organization is a continuous hierarchy where every level has authority on the level below it. Job holders have no rights to a particular position. Responsibilities are delineated within each level, which has its own sphere of competence. Technical competence is the basis for appointment to an office. The strengths and the weaknesses of the bureaucratic organization are described as below: Strengths : Increased control and monitoring of the upper level management More control over the employees with set rules and regulations Reporting relationships are clear and well-defined Centralized system, where all the decisions are monitored Weaknesses: Lack of innovation due to the set procedures and processes Employees are not motivated because of lesser employee participation and involvement Communication has to go through many levels, which gets distorted Encourages politics in the organization These are the strengths and the weaknesses of the bureaucratic organization. The organization chosen is BMW or Bayerische Motoren Werke which is headquartered in Munich, Germany and came into being in 1917. It has become one of the ten largest car manufacturers in the world. Long-term thinking and cornerstone thinking has been the reasons for their success. The prime objectives of their corporate strategy include striving for ecological and social sustainability, taking full responsibility for their products, and giving commitment towards their resources. It is for these objectives, that BMW has been the sector leader since the last five years, according to the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices. BMW holds the privilege of having some of the best brands in the world, to be their creations. These are the BMW Series, MINI and the Rolls Royce. These automobiles represent the finest and the most luxurious segment of the cars in the world. Along with the automotive concerns BMW is also employed with other services such as: Motorcycles BMW is also engaged with the development, production and the marketing of motorcycles. These motorcycles are set in standard with technology, environmental protection and outstanding customer pre-sales and after-sales services. Financial Services an extensive product portfolio is offered by BMW that supplies expert information and advice for situations and questions in relation with the finance sector. As stated in their Annual Report 2009, BMW is clear with their mission for 2020 where they are the worlds leading provider of premium products and services for individual mobility. More driving pleasure and less of emissions the BMW group is implementing on this principle, unlike the other automobile manufacturers by working on Efficient Dynamics technology. In 2007, BMW adopted the Number ONE strategy that focused on long-term value growth and profitability. The four pillars of this strategy are Future, Growth, Customers and Profitability. This strategy revolutionized the BMW group and put them on the path to success.BMW has about 24 production and assembly plants in 13 countries. The sales distribution network of BMW stands strong at 41 company-owned subsidiaries and more than 3,000 dealerships. The next task discusses and compares the ways of organizational development and aligns it with BMW. Task (c) Organization development consists of the activities that intervene in the interactions of the people and the systems, i.e. in the work culture and in the organizational design in order to increase the efficiency using a variety of applied behavioral sciences. Richard Beckhard in what is Organizational Development?, mentions that it is Ã¢â¬Å"an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organizations Ã¢â¬Ëprocesses, using behavioral-science knowledge.Ã¢â¬ The intervention techniques focus on four categories- the Interpersonal, team or group, intergroup and then the overall organizational intervention. Each intervention revolves around these four categories. Some of the important organization development interventions include: Survey Feedback is a part of intervening in the total organizational system. This methodology believes in taking feedback from the managers in the form of a survey conducted. The data is collected, the results are analyzed and then the means are developed to correct the situation. Process Consultation a behavioral effort, this intervention aims at the teams or the intergroup activities, where through interaction, the problem is resolved. Coaching and counseling are the means of influencing change. Goal setting the goals of every division in the organization is set. This aligns with the overall organizational objectives. This is an inter-group activity. Managerial Grid it consists of group and individual activities with a view to developing the managerial style, interpersonal competence and group effectiveness. Management by Objectives this tool developed by Peter Drucker, where the managers at different levels and their subordinates work together to establish and then achieve their goals. Re-engineering a radical redesigning of the people, processes and customer satisfaction that would obtain drastic changes in the performance. These are some of the ways in which organizational development is encouraged in the organization. The automotive industry undergoes structural changes in an uncertain economic climate. Manufacturers face a new set of challenges to their business models, designs and ultimately, their cost structures. Automotive companies have to ensure that their designs are fuel-efficient, light-weight, are cheap to produce and are desirable. In this era of globalization, where the consumer has become a think-tank and is conscious of its status and upbringing in the society, BMW as an organization has always believed in identifying demands, reflecting on the challenges and investing in the future. The group understands that success and sustainability belong together. The Sustainability Board at BMW continuously evaluates progress and determines the suitable strategic directions. Every employee at BMW is called upon to help implement the goal of sustainability and responsibility. Of the ways of organizational development that have been discussed above, the intervention of Re-engineering would suit the framework of BMW. This organizational development intervention would seek to radically transform all the processes and gain quantum leaps in the processes. This model would look at the overall improvement at BMW and would even make amendments in the separate divisions. The level of changes that can be implemented in BMW would include: Structural changes change at the level of the structure of the organization. Inclusion of new members in the committee. BMW continuously evaluates its board members and members of the supervisory board. Also, mergers and acquisitions could bring about a hefty change in the organization. Technical changes hybrid and fuel-efficient cars are the demands of the environment and the industry today. BMW faces the challenge of promoting social and ecological aspects as resource-friendly and effective alternatives on the supplier markets. This is the ecological change that BMW needs to apply in its operations. One of the objectives of BMW is reduce the resource consumption and emissions by another 30% as compared to the 2006 level. BMW is already exercising these options by way of applying the Efficient Dynamics Technology. Changes in the Human Resources people are the most important element in any organization. BMW ensures that its employees are satisfied and that they meet the targets of their Strategy Number ONE, as discussed before. In fact, for any organization, organizational development for its employees is of utmost importance. And that is why, BMW holds its members as the strongest pillar in its Strategy Number ONE. With the help of the Balanced Scorecard method, BMW ensures that its members achieve their targets which are also in view with achieving the company-wide objectives. The human resources department attracts mainly the high performers with the highest competencies. Also, cross-functional training, ideal job description are some of the ways in which the employees are encouraged to challenge the changing environments. One of the powerful programmes of BMW is called Ã¢â¬Å"DriveÃ¢â¬ for the young professionals with only up to three years of experience. The next part deals with the development of systems for understanding and involving others in the process of change. PART II Task (a) In todays fast paced business environment, companies need to have flexible and planned business operations to facilitate radical change. Change to company processes requires dedicated planning, and its become imperative to align resources and employees to the companys objectives and goals. Adopting long term-change, strategic planning in the business units, building performance metrics, management-encouraged ideas, employee training and development are some of the critical success factors that would help infuse change in the organization. Of these, the most important is the Stakeholder Analysis. This analysis helps in creating and documenting those policies that would be in the interest of the stakeholders. This analysis would help in aggrandizing the process of change management of the organization. Stakeholder Analysis is a process of gathering and analyzing qualitative data in relation to those to whom the interests of the organization are worthwhile. This data is taken into account while deciding upon a particular policy or a program to be implemented. Stakeholders are the persons or organization with vested interest in the policy being promoted. These stakeholders can be the international donors, national/political figures, public agencies, labor, civil society and the users/consumers. There are eight major steps that are involved in this process: Kammi Schmeer provides these eight steps in Stakeholder Analysis Guidelines, and regards this information to be useful for other analyses as well. This system would help in developing and in introducing change in the organization. When this analysis would be conducted before the policy is implemented then, the policy makers and the managers can act to prevent any potential misunderstanding or opposition. This would enable the program to succeed most likely. BMW already exercises good stakeholder engagement policies in their organization. It believes in the principle of Ã¢â¬ËListen, understand and act. In 2009, BMW hosted its first Stakeholder Roundtable where experts from various environmental, societal and organizational concerns were present. They discussed the issues relating to product strategies and lessen the resource consumption across the value chain. BMW regularly holds stakeholder surveys, employee surveys and commits to sustainability initiatives. Task (b) After developing the system for engaging the stakeholders in the implementation of change, the organization is still most likely to receive resistance. In the light of transitions, it is almost natural for stakeholders to resist change. The most affected in the changing circumstances are the employees. Humans have a desire for perpetual stability, especially in their jobs and roles. And hence, the urge to resist is dominant. Many processes recognize and tend to overcome resistance in an organization. Some of them are: Individual Interviews these would help in determining the exact thought processes that are prevailing in the minds of the stakeholders Commitment Plan- all the stakeholders and the members of the organization should be committed to the change plan. And this would majorly succeed, if the top-level management inspire leadership and help create a conducive environment to change Communication of decisions as soon as the decisions are taken, they should be intimated to the stakeholders. The same should be done with care and honor for the stakeholders, respecting the past traditions and describing the advantages of a changed future. Input every stakeholder that is going to be affected by the change plan should be given a chance to express the views, but in a defined and composed manner. A systematic plan should be developed. Rewards successful implementation and cooperation should be credited with compensatory rewards. Evaluation after the necessary changes have been implemented, the organization should evaluate the strategic changes on continual basis. This evaluation is of utmost importance to the stakeholders, as then the effects of the new policy or programme would be known to the policy makers. This would help in making amendments and improvising further. PART III This part deals with the plan that would be required to implement ongoing change in the organization. Task (a) Every organization needs to gain competitive advantage in todays world. Taking a holistic approach towards the process can assure the company to adopt the right mindset from the first go. There are various models for implementation of change management in an organization. Some of the models that would aid in proper change management especially in BMW are described as below. 1. ADKAR Change Model by Prosci This a goal oriented change model that allows the management teams to focus their activities on the business results. This acronym is characterized by the words Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement. There should be Awareness for the need for change; a Desire to participate and support the change; Knowledge of how to change; Ability to change on a day-to-day basis and Reinforcement to keep the change in place. This model can be used to: ÃË Diagnose the resistance of employees to change ÃË Help the employees in accepting the transition ÃË Create a successful action plan for personal and professional management ÃË Develop a change management plan This model helps in identifying why the changes are not working and what could be done to implement the changes. 2. The 4-D process of Appreciative Enquiry This model by David Cooperrider talks about the change interventions that can take process via the 4-D way: ÃË Discovery mobilizing a whole system enquiry ÃË Dream envisioning the impact ÃË Design co-constructing the future with the stakeholders ÃË Delivery Sustaining the Change Organizations, says this theory, are centers of human relations and thrive only when there is an appreciative eye. Kurt Lewins Three-Stage model has been discussed before is a powerful tool in bring about the necessary changes in an organization. BMW, as an organization has learnt to adapt flexibly to any new situation. There are some recommendations that need to be applied by BMW in its organization to foster easy change acceptance by the employees. These are: Temporal Flexibility in this module, the employees should be able to take advantage of flexible work time models. They can work part-time or even full time. In motion- geographically and professionally not only geographical expansion, BMW should ensure that it does not exceed the head count of its employees. It is necessary to have skilled labor in order to survive new technologies and new markets Staff-oriented leadership the staff should be meant to lead the way into the organization. Active Participation BMW should encourage innovation and improvement culture by giving its staff numerous opportunities to have a share in the companys future. They should have the right to give in suggestions and ideas. Co-evaluate staff surveys should be held regularly at BMW to evaluate the effects of change in the organization Total Quality Management the quality at BMW should be enhanced and maintained at all levels. Care should be taken to avoid any mistakes. BMW is a technology-driven organization, and therefore, should apply the above given recommendations. If these are implemented practically, then it would be easier for the stakeholders to accept the new policies which would be based on successful past data. Task (b) In order to ensure that a correct change management plan has been implemented, a plan needs to be developed. This plan is divided into three phases that has been developed by ages of research by Prosci: Phase 1 Preparation for change Phase 2- Managing the change Phase 3 Reinforcing the Change Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 There are various possible outcomes that an organization would experience after successful implementation of the plan. These are: Greater organizational effectiveness Improved work quality and morale Enhanced cooperation and collaboration in work Better customer service Increased ROI Reduced time to implement change This plan can be implemented in BMW by operating not only horizontally but even in the vertical structure. Every division of BMW should exercise this plan and work upon it in making the recommended changes. This effective plan would be able to result in fruitful changes in BMW, and help them in achieving their Strategy Number ONE with ease. Reference List Books 1. Handy, Charles, (1990), Ã¢â¬Å"The Age of UnreasonÃ¢â¬ , Harvard Business School Press, United States of America 2. Kotter, John; Cohen, Dan, (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"The Heart of ChangeÃ¢â¬ , Harvard Business School Press, United States of America 3. Weber, Max , (1947), Ã¢â¬Å"The Theory of Social and Economic OrganizationÃ¢â¬ , Collier Macmillan Publishers, London PDF files 1. Schmeer, Kammi, Ã¢â¬Å"Stakeholder Analysis GuidelinesÃ¢â¬ . http://new.paho.org/hss/documents/policytoolkitforstrengtheninghealthsectorreformpartii-EN.pdf 2. Beckhard, Richard, Ã¢â¬Å"What is Organizational Development?Ã¢â¬ . http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/64/07879842/0787984264.pdf 3. Ã¢â¬Å"Prosci Change Management SeriesÃ¢â¬ http://www.prosci.com/prosci_change_series.pdf 4. BMW Annual Report 2009 http://www.bmwgroup.com/annualreport2009/_downloads/BMW_Group_2009.pdf 5. BMW Sustainability Value Report 2009 http://www.bmwgroup.com/e/0_0_www_bmwgroup_com/verantwortung/publikationen/sustainable_value_report_2008/_pdf/SVR_2008_engl_Gesamtversion.pdf
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Suleyman Demirel University Course work: Analysis of strengths and weaknesses of financial system in Kazakhstan Done by: Abeu Azamat Economics1 Date______________ Almaty 2010 Introduction Financial relations forms there where are funds of money is. Only with the advent of the state and the regular commodity-money reference there is an economic category the finance. Finance is objectively necessary, their necessity is caused by existence of commodity manufacture, the reference, and also action of the law of cost.The monetary relations developing between the enterprises in their economic activities, the circulation of funds in the course of manufacture mediates. A material basis of the finance is manufacture. Studying of economic structure of any society of the modern state is impossible without the financial system analysis, representing set of financial relations and institutes regulating them. Financial relations represent an important component of the general economic relations inh erent in any public system.Through the financial mechanism the state forms and uses funds of the money resources necessary for performance of its numerous functions in political, economic and social spheres. The financial system covers numerous institutes of public finances which operate in close interaction with credit institutes of different function. Subject of my research is set of the financial and monetary and credit relations demanding the new approach to their regulation in the conditions of transition to market economy.A methodological basis the complex system approach to studying of a problem of reforming of financially-credit system of Republic Kazakhstan in the conditions of transition to market economy makes, applications in these purposes of various concepts of world economic thought on increase of a role of the finance, money and the credit in management of national economy. The financial sector of Kazakhstan is the largest financial sector in Central Asia. It possess es enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals.It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts; both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items.The urgency of the given theme can't be exaggerated, after all a financial system, by right, it is considered a basis of bases of any modern state. Many crises of economy are connected with infringement of its functioning. Therefore it is necessary to know all subtleties of its device for maintenance of normal functioning of any country. It is possible to assert that each link of a financial system is its independent element, but this independence is relative in middle the uniform complete.The financial system is a set of various kinds of funds of the financial resources concentrated at the disposal of the state, not financial sector of economy (managing subjects), separate financial institutions and the population (households) for execution of the functions assigned to them, and also for satisfaction of economic and social requirements. The modern world is the world of all-round and all-powerful commodity-money relations. They penetrate internal life of any state and its activity on international scene.In the course of reproduction at different levels, since the enterprise and finishing national economy as a whole, funds of money resources are formed. Thus has no value, in what form money acts: In the form of cash paper signs, roofing felts in the form of credit cards, or on appearing on bank accounts of t he sums in general out of any form. Global financial and economic crisis has shown weaknesses of existing models of financial relations both of universal scale, and at national level. Weaknesses have been revealed in structure of state regulation and in activity of financial institutions.Problems of financial institutions were showed in imperfection and discrepancy of control systems by risks to modern lines and level of accepted risks (both on degree, and on quality of risks), low level of the corporate governance, an insufficient transparency and, as consequence, an inefficiency of the business models, appeared sensitive to negative tendencies. One of distinctive features of the post crisis period is necessity of elimination of the revealed problems of financial sector, correction of the admitted errors and maintenance stable diversified growth.It is necessary to continue work on creation of a modern, steady and competitive financial system of sovereign Kazakhstan. In this work us ed a proceedings of domestic and foreign scientists; rich worldÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of functioning of financially-credit systems of the countries with the developed and developing market economy, principles of systematization and developments. Main part CONCEPT OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM By definition, the financial system is a set of financial relations. By the nature financial relations are distributive, and cost distribution is carried out first of all on subjects.Subjects form monetary funds of a special-purpose designation depending on them play what role a social production: whether are its direct participants, whether will organize insurance protection or carry out state regulation. The role of the subject in a social production represents itself as the first objective criterion of classification of financial relations. According to it in the general set of financial relations large spheres can be allocated: the finance of the enterprises, establishments and the organizations; i nsurance; public finances.In each of the named spheres links are allocated, and the grouping of financial relations is carried out depending on character of activity of the subject, making defining impact on structure and appointment of target monetary funds. This criterion allows to allocate in sphere of the finance of the enterprises (establishments, the organizations) such links, as the finance of the enterprises functioning on the commercial beginnings: the finance of establishments and the organizations which are carrying out noncommercial activity; the finance of public associations.In insurance sphere where character of activity of the subject predetermines specificity of object of insurance, as links act: social insurance, property and personal insurance, responsibility insurance, insurance of enterprise risks. In sphere of public finances Ã¢â¬â accordingly, the state budget, off-budget funds, the state credit. Spheres and links of financial relations are interconnected, forming in aggregate uniform financial system. Different links of a financial system serve different kinds of financial distribution: intraeconomic Ã¢â¬â the finance of the enterprises.Inside branch Ã¢â¬â the finance of the enterprises, complexes, associations, interbranch and between territorial Ã¢â¬â the state budget, off-budget funds. Each link of a financial system is in turn subdivided on under links according to internal structure of financial interrelations containing in it. So, as a part of the finance of the enterprises functioning on the commercial beginnings, depending on a branch orientation, the finance industrial, agricultural, trading, transport agencies etc. and in dependence o? patterns of ownership Ã¢â¬â the finance of the state enterprises, cooperative, joint-stock can be isolated, private, etc. Branch and economic features of the enterprises functioning on the commercial beginnings, make essential impact on the organization of financial relations, str ucture of formed monetary funds of a special-purpose designation, an order of their formation and use. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM OF KAZAKHSTANAccording to many experts, Kazakhstan has already overcome the most painful after achievement of financial stabilization peak of structural economic transformations and has achieved appreciable successes, realizing own strategy and, tactics of economic reforms. In Kazakhstan for fifteen years of independence the system of economic and social relations has completely changed. Since the beginning in 1994 of global economic reforms financial stabilization is appreciably reached, privatization of all state ownership approaches end, manufacture lifting was outlined.If in 1993 inflation made over two thousand percent in 2001 it has decreased to 23, 7 %, And today makes about 7-9 %. There was almost full liberalization of the prices and cancellation of the majority of restrictions in foreign trade sphere. In 1996 growth of a total internal product in comparison with previous year on 0, 5 % has been for the first time in recent years provided. The rate of refinancing of National Bank of the Republic Kazakhstan, reaching in the middle of 1994 450-480 %, has decreased more than in 20 times. Carrying out of a rational policy of the State expenditure has provided decrease in a shortage level of the budget.In turn, it has allowed to put the strong base of maintenance of financial stabilization of economy: real preconditions of attraction of the investments, promoting moderate economic growth, lifting and structural reorganization of national economy and improvement on this basis of quality of life of the population are created. One of the basic sections of the governmental program on deepening of reforms for 1996-1998 was reforming of a control system by financial resources of the country and its adaptation to market conditions.Thereupon, last years efforts of the government have been directed first of all on rationalizati on of budgetary expenses, strengthening of financial discipline, creation of the real proprietor and stimulation of attraction of investments into development of economy of republic, perfection of interbudgetary relations and formation of the effective mechanism of management by the state external and internal debt, strengthening and development of the market of the state securities and other tools of a market infrastructure.Despite complexity of an economic situation, last years from the republican budget were allocated considerable means for support of domestic commodity producers, sanitation and rehabilitation of the state enterprises, financing of investment and social projects, objects of small and average business. In particular, only in 199? to year on these purposes it is directed over 15 % of budgetary funds, or 26,9 billion tenge, including on agriculture development Ã¢â¬â 9,8 billion tenge, or 91,4 % to the forecast.Credits to Eximbank for financing of investment proje cts have made 3,6 billion tenge, or 99,5 % to the plan, and Rehabilitation bank for carrying out of procedures on the insolvent enterprises Ã¢â¬â 5,8 billion tenge, or 97,1 % to the plan. For the purpose of attraction of the foreign capital for expansion of manufacture and acquisition of skills on marketing and management per 1995 1996 transfer of some the large enterprises black and nonferrous metallurgy, chemical branch to foreign investors was carried out.It is possible to criticize the government for these measures as nobody is insured from errors in business such extremely difficult and absolutely new to us, but the fact remains somehow, of course. By these enterprises only for 1996 it is made production more than on 190 billion tenge that makes almost 28 % from industrial output total amount. In comparison with the corresponding period of 1995 (on 6 %), hire ready (on 7 %), copper refined (in 1,4 times), magnesium and magnesian alloys (in 1,5 times), lead steel manufacture has increased in a concentrate (on 5,8 %), alumina (on 5,8 %).Manufacture of iron ore and pig-iron has increased also. But the most important thing Ã¢â¬â here was possible to keep employment, to avoid large social conflicts and measures on strengthening of control over tax revenues from these enterprises are now undertaken. A key problem of the government there is a creation of the real proprietor that will allow to expand profitable base of the budget. In 1996 it is considerable Rates of carrying out of privatization according to separate individual projects were accelerated. Now almost all large enterprises is in private hands.At the given stage the big work on end of privatization of objects under individual projects is spent. At the same time, as well as in other countries with transitive economy, development of budgetary sphere during the last years at us restrained decrease in level of public revenues, as consequence of the most severe crisis and high inflation in previous years, deterioration of a financial condition and financial discipline, first of all, at the state enterprises, weak tax administration and complexities with the taxation of a growing private sector.For example, incomes of the state budget to gross national product level have decreased from 22,3 % and 1993 to 16,9 % in 1996, including tax revenues from 15,6 % to 11 % to gross national product. The basic share of tax revenues in 1996 has been provided at the expense of taxes from consumers Ã¢â¬â 40,7 % to a total sum of taxes. In 1997 budget incomes will make 15,3 % to gross national product, including tax Ã¢â¬â 11,7 %, per 1998 accordingly Ã¢â¬â 16,4 % and 12,2 % to gross national product level.For the decision of the large problems concerning the general policy in the field of the State expenditure, in 1996 there have been begun large-scale reforms: on optimization of a network and structure of social sphere, reorganization of system of the central and local executive powe rs, reforming of housing and communal services, social protection and population provision of pensions. On realization pension reform in 1997 it has been listed 36 billion tenge to State payable center from the state budget.For 1999 the budgeted deficit at a rate of 5,5 % to gross national product as a result of granting of transfers from the budget to the Pension fund on 52 billion tenge and payment of social benefits for 23 billion tenge was put. Thus, the budgetary policy gets even more social orientation. Formation, public health services, social insurance and maintenance will be priority directions of an expenditure of public funds. As a whole, the share of expenses on social programs under the budget project for 1998 has made 61,5 % of all expenses of the state.For the decision of social problems of republic in 1997 the Republic Kazakhstan government had been undertook serious steps on strengthening of a profitable part of the state budget. The basic directions in the field we re strengthening of control over receipts of taxes and work with separate tax bearers, perfection of methods of administration behind taxation, modernization and a computerization of tax services of republic. However these measures haven't given fast effect and in 2000 financial possibilities of the state budget have been limited.Thereupon, the basic accent in the budgetary policy of this year has been directed on more efficient control state ownership, rational use of public finances, strengthening of control over a target expenditure of means of tax bearers. Work in this direction will be constantly spent and regularly. Despite additional loading on the state budget in connection with reforming of system of provision of pensions and occurrence of powerful expenses on state debt service, the government has allocated in the budget of 2000 considerably a great sum for investment programs, than in previous years.If in 1997 budgetary investments were provided at a rate of 19,9 billion tenge in the following from the budget to priority investment projects at the expense of external sources it has been directed 34 billion tenge, or about 400 mln. dollars that, in turn, stimulated considerable growth of solvent demand and lifting of economy of republic. The basic priorities of the state investment program are development of a social and industrial infrastructure, and also housing construction activization. the list of investment projects projects on education system rehabilitation, development of a high system, reconstruction of irrigational systems and water supply systems enter. Financing of projects is provided at the expense of means of the state budget, and also at the expense of the means given by foreign donors. Since 1998, the Ministry of Finance refuses direct credits of National Bank. For budgeted deficit financing in 1998 noninflationary sources and market methods of loan in the internal and external financial markets have been used only.In 1997 it has no t been admitted any default under the state financial obligations that has seriously strengthened image of our country as the reliable partner in the international affairs. For the first time in history Kazakhstan in November, 1996 to it the international credit rating which has allowed already in month to carry out confident debut issue of Eurobonds in the sum of 200 mln. Dollars of the USA in the world financial markets is appropriated.On level of attraction of direct foreign investments per capita the republic is included confidently into the first five the CIS is central Ã¢â¬â also the East Europe countries, and also. Cumulative inflow of direct foreign investments, according to the European bank of reconstruction and development, in economy of Kazakhstan during 1989-1996 has made 2761 mln. dollars of the USA. Unfortunately, in the near future it is not necessary to rely on internal resources. The advanced experience, new technologies and a know-how, administrative and market ing skills are necessary.That is why we apply many efforts for creation of a favorable investment climate in the country. It is possible to underline that Kazakhstan has now perfect enough legislative and institutional base for effective attraction and use of foreign investments. We have today the most liberal tax mode in comparison with other states CIS, the limited number of taxes Ã¢â¬â their only 11 against 45, existing in old tax laws. Important point is that reforms in republic moving forward. By estimations of the World Bank, Kazakhstan is the initiator and the leader among the CIS countries in carrying out of reforms.Involving investments into national economy, we solve also one more important social problem Ã¢â¬â preservation of employment of the population. It is rather actual for Kazakhstan as in 1996 by statistical bodies of republic it is recognized by officially jobless Ã¢â¬â 391,7 thousand people or 4,1 % from economically active population. One more factor is structural reforms. According to the government plans, all radical reforms should be finished the next two years. The transit status of the Kazakhstan economy, moving from a management system to market, will pass in the category more settled.For this purpose there are all conditions. It and legislative base of the market, both investment packages, and a way of the organization budgetary, tax, currency and an anti-inflationary policy, and, at last, a way of the organization of relations not only in economy, but also in a society. In republic strong enough reserve for steady growth of economy in the future is created. Results The Kazakhstan's financial system is characterized by high enough level of market concentration. Especially it concerns bank and pension sectors of the country.Presence of similar tendencies and a consequence of present crisis for financial sector of Kazakhstan have once again confirmed the traditional theory when risks of the largest financial institutions put system pressure upon a condition of all financial system. In these conditions one of key priorities of post crisis development will be competition stimulation in financial sector. It provides as a direct measure necessity of gradual increase in the minimum size of the capital first of all banks.Integration and consolidation or their reorganization in other kinds of financial institutions will promote growth of a market share of the average banks capable on mass products to render a due competition to big banks. Moreover, the most successful condition of development of banks and bank products is their competitiveness. It also is important from a position of expansion of coverage and population access to as much as possible wide list of bank services, especially in regions.It is necessary to pay attention to creation of conditions for expansion of possibilities of banks on granting of modern retail financial services, first of all the most demanded today the population of payment serv ices, by formation of a corresponding interbank infrastructure. Within the limits of this problem it is necessary to direct the basic efforts on integration of the components of an infrastructure of retail payments separated and poorly interconnected now with a view of achievement of increase of efficiency and technological compatibility.In case of need it is necessary to consider the problem on restriction of foreign participation in financial sector at a rate of no more than 50 % from a cumulative authorized capital stock separately on each segment of financial sector. With a view of development of a diligent competition in all segments of the financial market reduction of participation of the state to its full exit will be provided at achievement of sufficient level of a competition. ConclusionThe financial system is system of integration type, is characterized by a close connection of elements (subsystems) entering into it and that any of its subsystems can't exist independently : the finance, on the one hand, expresses a part of relations of production and consequently acts as an element of system of these relations, with another Ã¢â¬â represents the system consisting of interconnected elements, having the functional properties. In the finance it is possible to name as functional subsystems such, as tax, budgetary, financial plans (forecasts), budget financing, financial indicators, etc.Besides functional criterion of classification of a financial system classification by a sign of subjects of the finance (participating in financial relations) is applied that allows to differentiate a financial system on links. Links as the coordinated number of classification contain elements of the higher category: financial relations, the financial funds, the operating device. Such property of ordering gives to a financial system integration character. In market relations economy functioning commodity-money relations are regulated by the state in ready smaller degree . The basic regulators Ã¢â¬â supply and demand of the goods, works, services.Out of commodity relations the finance can't exist. Only at an exchange of the made goods, services, their realization for certain money's worth at commodity producers the monetary gain is formed. From a gain from realization of production, works, services corresponding funds of money resources which go on compensation of the spent means of production, payment should be allocated. And cost of an additional product should be distributed on the parts satisfying to economic interests of all participants of a social production, industrial spheres, invalid members of a society, for creation of insurance funds and resources.Large financial investments are necessary for realization of reorientation of economy, therefore important problems are research of sources of structural transformations, parity definition between means of the state in the form of budgetary appropriations and own means of the enterprises. T he state budget as the tool of management of economy has the integrated influence on a social production as financial document, as the economic lever; and as stimulus. The state budget is the central link of a financial system.In it find interrelation various types of income, expenses and the state loans. The profitable part contains the list of arriving means, and account Ã¢â¬â unites all kinds of made loans. I. e. the state budget is an economic category which expresses relations of production in the monetary form, arising between the state and other participants of a social production in the course of distribution and re-distribution of cost of a public product. The state budget is the tool of realization of a state policy and the basic source of money resources for realization of the planned programs.Formation of a profitable part has now many problems, therefore the frequent updating of tax laws aggravating position of the enterprises, negatively influence manufacture proces s, so, on a state budget condition. An important question at state budget drawing up is directions of an expenditure of the budgetary funds, connected with carrying out of a financially-budgetary policy. At level of micro-economics the financial system structure is made by the primary finance Ã¢â¬â at the enterprises and in house economy.Their financial activity includes two moments: formation of money resources (that occurs by means of initial distribution of incomes) and an expenditure of such means. Incomes and expenses are balanced counterbalanced) as follows. The condition of the finance is reflected in the enterprises in the account of profits and losses (expenses). In housekeeping the received incomes (from use of factors of manufacture) are compared with expenses (expenses for current consumption and savings).Primary finance at macroeconomic level forms base of the secondary finance of the state. They are formed as a result of the subsequent distribution (or redistributio ns) incomes mainly by means of taxes. Taxes Ã¢â¬â obligatory payments of the enterprises and the population which the state raises taking into account size of primary incomes. Public finance plays an important role in growth of the state consumption which creates additional demand, expands home market. In the end it would be desirable to draw personal conclusions on the given work: The main problem in financial sphere, in my opinion, consists that quantitative growth of a profitable part of the budget of Kazakhstan and all other important financial indicators is reached at the expense of falling of a course of tenge in relation to dollar and at the expense of incomes of the oil-extracting industry that can lead to deep economic recession as all financial and economic system depends on the quotation of the given raw materials in the world market; Ã¢â¬â In Kazakhstan still and the system of crediting of small-scale business isn't developed.The given sphere of economy is very imp ortant in market economy as on an example of the developed countries it is visible that it makes gross national product most part. Agriculture after disorder of the USSR it has appeared in a difficult situation, therefore a priority problem of the state at present consists in crediting through banks of the second level of the given branch. Ã¢â¬â In Kazakhstan development of such important financial tools as the credit, the deposit and leasing has already begun.In the conditions of market economy their role consists in acceleration of formation of seed capital that is very important in Kazakhstan where shortage in investments is felt. Ã¢â¬â Financial control in Kazakhstan is carried out by financial police and the Ministry of Finance. At present the is standard-legal base concerning financial relations is still reformed, but it is enough already developed positions for regulation of financial processes in Kazakhstan. Ã¢â¬â For today sharply there is a question on advantage o f the state budget.It speaks about badly thought over strategy of an expenditure of means. Ã¢â¬â Besides, despite repeated increases of a salary to workers of budgetary sphere, in our republic differentiation of monetary incomes of the population is still strong. Settlement of this question in the future can lead to increase in tax revenues in budget of Kazakhstan. Priority problem of Republic Kazakhstan for today is, in my opinion, settlement of the above-named problems. References 1. , , 24. 4. 95 ? 2235 Ã «? ? ? Ã ». 2. ? 355-1 31. 03. 99 Ã «? ? ? , , Ã «? ? ? Ã » ? 2235 24. 04. 95Ã ». 3. ? 357-1 01. 04. 00 Ã¢â¬Å"? Ã¢â¬ . 4. ? 359-1 01. 04. 00 Ã¢â¬Å"? ? ? Ã¢â¬Å"? 2001 Ã¢â¬ . 5. ?. ?. , (1997), , () 6. ?. ?. , (1996), , () 7. ?. ? (1998), , () 8. ?. ?. (1998), , () 9. ?. ?. (1997), , () 10. ?. ?. , ?. ?. ,(1998), , () 11. ?. ?.. ?. ?. , (1998), . , (, -?) 12. . 13. 2030
Friday, January 10, 2020
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